Department of Science

Rhoades Science Center 203
Department Chair:
Andre DeLorme, Ph.D.
Assistant: Alice Beauchman
alice.beauchman@vcsu.edu
(800) 532-8641 extension 37452
(701) 845-7452
FAX: (701) 845-7450
www.vcsu.edu/academics/divisions/mshpe/science/

The Science Department seeks to encourage and develop the ability of students interested in pursuing a career in the pure and applied sciences. We provide students with academic counseling, courses, programs and research experiences that will prepare them for their future employment or enable them to enter their professional or graduate school of choice. The Science Department is well rounded in the sciences with majors in Biology, Chemistry, Health Science, Medical Laboratory Science, Environmental Science, and Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences. In addition we take seriously the training of our future teachers with majors in Biology Education and Chemistry Education.

Learning Outcomes

On completion of a major in the Science Department our students should:

  1. Demonstrate a fundamental knowledge of the major concepts in the science disciplines.
  2. Exhibit critical thinking skills by applying the scientific method to solve problems.
  3. Exhibit the ability to read and communicate in a scientific style.
  4. Understand the importance of science to themselves and society.
  5. Analyze the consequences of activities on themselves and their environment.

Anderson, Bob (2005) Associate Professor; B.S. South Dakota State University, Ph.D. South Dakota State University

Bilski, Jerzy (2008) Assistant Professor; B.S, M.S University of Technology and Agriculture in Poland, Ph.D. Central Agricultural University of Warsaw, Poland

DeLorme, Andre (1996) Professor; B.A. Valley City State University, M.A. Bemidji State University, Ph.D. University of Minnesota

Dennhardt, Lauren (2016) Assistant Professor; B.A. University of Minnesota, Morris, Ph.D. North Dakota State University STEM College Teaching, North Dakota State University

Galt, Nicholas (2016) Assistant Professor; B.S. North Dakota State University, Ph.D. University of Alabama

Keasler, Samuel (2013) Assistant Professor; B.S. Iowa State University, Ph.D. Louisiana State University

Kilgore, Susan (2014) Assistant Professor; B.A. Augustana College, M.S., Ph.D. University of Iowa

Kuipers, Gilbert (1981) Associate Professor; B.S. North Georgia College, Ph.D. Georgia Institute of Technology

Sundstrom, Teather (2012) Assistant Professor; B.S. University of North Dakota, Ph.D. University of Connecticut

van Gijssel, Hilde (2002) Professor; M.S., Ph.D. Leiden University (the Netherlands)

Williams, Casey (2011) Assistant Professor; B.S. Northwestern State University, M.S., Ph.D. Texas State University

BIOL 111. Concepts of Biology. 4 Credits.

An introductory level non-majors transferable class designed to meet the requirements of a lab science. This class is an introduction to the major concepts of modern biology through lecture and laboratory work on the structure, function, diversity, and interrelationships of living organisms, with emphasis on areas of human concern.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.

BIOL 121. Introduction to Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the basic principles that are integral to understanding fisheries and wildlife sciences. The course covers the history of management and legislation, general concepts of management, general field and lab methods, and wildlife and fisheries careers.
Typically Offered: Fall.

BIOL 122. Fisheries and Wildlife Techniques. 4 Credits.

A study of the field and laboratory techniques necessary for management and research of fish and wildlife populations, habitat evaluation, and sex and aging techniques.
Typically Offered: Spring.

BIOL 150. General Biology I. 4 Credits.

A two-semester sequenced study of the fundamental concepts of biology through lecture and laboratory work. BIOL 150 is focused on cellular biology and physiology. BIOL 151 focuses on concepts such as classification, evolution, and ecology. Recommended for students interested in science (required for certain majors and minors).
Typically Offered: Fall.

BIOL 151. General Biology II. 4 Credits.

A two-semester sequenced study of the fundamental concepts of biology through lecture and laboratory work. BIOL 150 is focused on cellular biology and physiology. BIOL 151 focuses on concepts such as classification, evolution, and ecology. Recommended for students interested in science (required for certain majors and minors).
Typically Offered: Spring.

BIOL 170. General Zoology. 4 Credits.

A survey of the animal kingdom. Major invertebrate and vertebrate animal groups are studied with emphasis on structure, function, life history and evolutionary advancements of each.
Typically Offered: Spring.

BIOL 171. Medical Terminology. 3 Credits.

An introduction into medical terminology. Topics includes prefixes, suffixes and root words, their meaning, spelling and pronunciation and the use of term in medical documentation. Emphasis is on building a working medical vocabulary based on body systems and diseases.
Typically Offered: Fall.

BIOL 194. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 199. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 200. Field Biology. 2 Credits.

A survey of the animal and plant species in local natural habitats with concentrated work on a selected topic. Filed trips for collection, identification, and preservation of specimens are required.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.

BIOL 220. Human Anatomy and Physiology I. 4 Credits.

A study of the structures and functions of the human body. The lab work includes physiological exercises, cat dissection with comparison to human structures and computer simulations. Topics include cells and tissues and the skin, bone, muscle, circulatory and the respiratory system.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: BIOL 111 or BIOL 150 or BIOL 151.

BIOL 221. Human Anatomy and Physiology II. 4 Credits.

The study of the structures and functions of the human body. The lab work includes physiological exercises, cat dissection with comparison to human structures and computer simulations. Topics include nerve system and the brain, senses and special senses and the endocrine, immune, reproductive, urinary and digestive systems. This course is designed to fulfill the anatomy and physiology requirements for psychology majors.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisite: BIOL 111 or BIOL 150 or BIOL 151.

BIOL 267. Environmental History. 3 Credits.

A survey of the interrelationship between the natural environment and the people who inhabit the land. Emphasis is given to the factors and events which have changed and challenged America's attitude toward the land and its natural resources. The course covers both grassroots movements and government policies that have resulted in the conservation and environmental movements in American history. Cross-referenced with HIST 267.
Typically Offered: Spring, odd years.
Same As: BIOL 267/HIST 267,BIOL 267/HIST 267.

BIOL 294. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 299. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 310. Microbiology. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the morphology, physiology, taxonomy, and ecology of micro organisms. Lecture and laboratory work deal with the history, isolation, identification, and culture of microorganisms. The fields of epidemiology, bioethics, and environmental microbiology will be discussed.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisites: one Biology class and one Chemistry class.

BIOL 311. Botany. 4 Credits.

A two-semester study of the diversity of plants, their classification, anatomy, physiology, and ecology includes a general overview of fungi and algae. Fall semester emphasizes the identification of North Dakota plants and economic botany. Course work includes field and laboratory work.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisites: BIOL 150 and BIOL 151.

BIOL 312. Botany. 4 Credits.

A two-semester study of the diversity of plants, their classification, anatomy, physiology, and ecology includes a general overview of fungi and algae. Fall semester emphasizes the identification of North Dakota plants and economic botany. Course work includes field and laboratory work.
Typically Offered: Spring, odd years.
Prerequisites: BIOL 150 and BIOL 151.

BIOL 315. Genetics. 4 Credits.

A study of the basis of heredity with emphasis on the structure and function of DNA and Mendelian genetics. Course work includes lecture and discussion on concepts in linkage, mutation, mechanisms of heredity, genetic mapping, molecular genetics, population genetics, current issues and research in genetics. Laboratory work includes experiments with Drosophila chromosomes and inheritance patterns.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisites: BIOL 150 and BIOL 151.

BIOL 330. North Dakota Flora. 3 Credits.

A systematic study of North Dakota summer flora including field work consisting of plant identification and ecology. Lectures and lab work cover taxonomy and classification, and the medicinal and economic value of plants.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.

BIOL 336. Range Management and Range Plants. 4 Credits.

Principles of range management which include plant identification, range evaluation, and range improvement. Lab with focus on identification, distribution, and forage value of important range plants.
Typically Offered: Fall.

BIOL 340. Research Methods. 4 Credits.

An overview of research techniques and methodologies used in biomedical research and health care. This course covers practices of qualitative and quantitative research design and analysis, measurement concepts in research and state and federal regulations using animals and humans in research. Fundamentals and specific applications of the most common data gathering and measurement techniques are addressed.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: Junior Standing or Senior Standing.

BIOL 343. Ornithology. 4 Credits.

A study of the identification, life history, physiology, migration, and ecology of birds. Course includes frequent field trips for practice in the recognition of species common to North Dakota.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisite: BIOL 151.

BIOL 347. Aquatic Entomology. 4 Credits.

A study of the diversity of aquatic insects and invertebrates focusing on their identification and importance in aquatic ecosystems. Course includes frequent field trips for collection of specimens.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisites: BIOL 150 and BIOL 151.

BIOL 355. Mammalogy. 4 Credits.

A study of the biology, classification, biogeography, ecology, and behavior of North American mammals. Labs cover mammal identification and life histories, trapping, and include multiple field trips.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: BIOL 151.

BIOL 360. Environmental Law and Regulations. 3 Credits.

An introduction to environmental laws and policies including their development and current status. State and Federal laws affecting fish and wildlife; their application, administration and the organizational structure of state and federal agencies will be covered.
Typically Offered: Spring, odd years.

BIOL 367. Ichthyology. 4 Credits.

A study of the biology, classification, biogeography, ecology, evolution, and behavior of fishes, with special emphasis to fishes found in the northern Great Plains. Labs cover identification and life histories of fishes and field trips.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: BIOL 151.

BIOL 375. Conservation Biology. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the study and conservation of biodiversity. Topics include historical and current trends in conservation of biological diversity, migratory corridors, endangered species, invasive species, conservation of genetic integrity, and island biogeography.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 151, and BIOL 170.

BIOL 380. Human Sexuality. 3 Credits.

A study of the role and meaning of human sexuality in relations to oneself as well as in all interrelationships with other people. Course work includes a study of anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system, human sexual response, process and role of identity, sexual value systems, contraception, and the importance of sexuality in preparation for family living. Cross-referenced with HPER 380 and PSYC 380.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.
Same As: BIOL 380/HPER 380/PSYC 380.

BIOL 394. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 395. Laboratory Preparation and Management. 1 Credit.

A practicum-like course that allows the student to directly assist the instructor in numerous aspects of laboratory instructional delivery. The course is designed to improve the competency of teaching laboratories. This course may be repeated up to three semester credit hours.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.
Repeatable: Up to 3 Credits.

BIOL 399. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 410. Field Ecology. 4 Credits.

A study of plant and animal communities, their diversity, interactions and adaptation to the environment. The course includes extensive fieldwork, independent research, statistical analysis and scientific writing.
Typically Offered: Fall, even years.
Prerequisites: BIOL 150 and BIOL 151.

BIOL 411. Wildlife Management. 4 Credits.

A study of advanced principles and applications of the management of terrestrial vertebrates and their population dynamics. Strategies for wildlife conservation, utilization, and enhancement are covered. Labs cover the collection and analysis of data, scientific writing, and consist of multiple field trips.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and BIOL 122.

BIOL 412. Fisheries Management. 4 Credits.

A study of advanced principles of managing fisheries resources with an emphasis on freshwater fishes and ecosystems. Includes field and laboratory techniques used in fisheries management and research.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisites: BIOL 121, BIOL 122, and BIOL 367.

BIOL 430. Human Dimensions in Fisheries and Wildlife. 3 Credits.

The objective of this course is for students to build an understanding and appreciation for the role of human dimensions in fisheries and wildlife management. Topics covered include public relations and communication for natural resources managers, land ethic, agency administration, natural resource law enforcement, and survey preparation.
Typically Offered: Spring, even years.
Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and BIOL 122.

BIOL 440. Biostatistics and Experimental Design. 4 Credits.

An introduction to analysis and interpretation of biological data. Topics include statistical assessment of field and laboratory research, experimental design, and application of computer software.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisite: MATH 103 or MATH 146 or MATH 165.

BIOL 441. Cell Biology. 4 Credits.

A study of processes common to life at the cellular level including biochemical and structural organization, membrane function, motility, signal transduction, growth, division, and genetic regulation of the cellular function. Laboratory work utilizes techniques to study life at the cellular level including chemical composition and characterization, enzyme kinetics, metabolism, and microscopy.
Typically Offered: Spring, even years.
Prerequisites: one Biology class and one Chemistry class.

BIOL 455. Introduction to GIS. 4 Credits.

An application of the principles of geographic information systems and integrally related mapping to solve problems related to natural resource management and other environmental issues. Comprehensive lav assignments are included to give students hands-on experience solving problems with current state-of-the-art software and GPS units, including data creation, data integration, mapping, and spatial analysis.
Typically Offered: Spring.

BIOL 470. Limnology. 4 Credits.

The study of biological, physical, and chemical features of freshwater ecosystems. The course includes field sampling, lab work and GIS mapping.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 151, CHEM 121, and CHEM 122.

BIOL 490. Secondary Science Methods and Techniques. 3 Credits.

A course designed to prepare prospective science teachers in the areas of curriculum planning, textbook selection, supplemental teaching aids, laboratory procedures, and the ordering of equipment and supplies. The course includes laboratory practicum experience.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: Admitted to Teacher Education.

BIOL 491. Integrated Science Capstone. 2 Credits.

A capstone course that requires students to apply previously-learned knowledge and skills to develop solutions to practical scientific issues. Students will be divided into small groups for plan development. Various majors are involved to allow for integrated course material.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: Senior Standing.
Same As: BIOL 491/CHEM 491.

BIOL 494. Undergraduate Research. 3-12 Credits.

The course is designed to integrate subject matter from major coursework and other disciplines into a project that leads to the creation of an original body of knowledge.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Prerequisite: Junior Standing or Senior Standing.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 497. Internship. 3-12 Credits.

An opportunity for students to apply classroom learning to an on-the-job work experience. Internship must be related to the student's major or minor course of study and may be in any geographic location. Credit is granted in the range of three to twelve hours per semester and may be repeated up to a maximum of 12 credit hours. Application and approval through Career Services.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisites: Junior Standing or Senior Standing and cum GPA of 2.50 or higher.
Grading: S/U only.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

BIOL 499. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

CHEM 115. Introductory Chemistry. 4 Credits.

A study of measurement, ionic and covalent compounds, chemical calculations, states of matter, energy, solutions, and chemical bonding. The course includes laboratory and may serve as a preparatory class for students with weak or no background in chemistry.
Typically Offered: Fall.

CHEM 116. Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry. 5 Credits.

A study of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, alcohols, pheols, ethers, aldehydes/ketones, carboxylic acids and esters, amines and amides, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisite: CHEM 115 or CHEM 121.

CHEM 121. General Chemistry I. 5 Credits.

The first semester of a two semester sequence covering the study of matter, measurements, atoms, ions, molecules, reactions, chemical calculations, thermochemistry, bonding, molecular geometry, periodicity, gases, intermolecular forces, liquids, solids, kinetics, equilbria, acids and bases, solution chemistry, precipitation, thermodynamics, and electrochemistry. Topics covered are illustrated with descriptive and historical perspectives, as well as applications of chemistry in society. The course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.
Prerequisite: ASC 93, MATH 103, or ACT Math score of 20 or higher.

CHEM 122. General Chemistry II. 5 Credits.

The second semester of a two semester sequence covering the study of matter, measurements, atoms, ions, molecules, reactions, chemical calculations, thermochemistry, bonding, molecular geometry, periodicity, gases, intermolecular forces, liquids, solids, kinetics, equilbria, acids and bases, solution chemistry, precipitation, thermodynamics, and electrochemistry. Topics covered are illustrated with descriptive and historical perspectives, as well as applications of chemistry in society. The course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.
Prerequisite: CHEM 121.

CHEM 194. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

CHEM 294. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

CHEM 330. Quantitative Analysis I. 4 Credits.

The first semester of a two semester sequence covering an investigation of the statistical treatment of data and error analysis, gravimetric analyses, solution chemistry and solubility equilibria, volumetric analyses, acid-base neutralization, complexometric and redox methods. Students are introduced to the theory, operation and applications of some modern instrumental techniques for chemical analysis. This course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Fall, odd years.
Prerequisite: CHEM 122.

CHEM 331. Quantitative Analysis II. 4 Credits.

The second semester of a two semester sequence covering an investigation of the statistical treatment of data and error analysis, gravimetric analyses, solution chemistry and solubility equilibria, volumetric analyses, acid-base neutralization, complexometric and redox methods. Students are introduced to the theory, operation and applications of some modern instrumental techniques for chemical analysis. This course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Spring, even years.
Prerequisite: CHEM 330.

CHEM 341. Organic Chemistry I. 5 Credits.

The first semester of a two semester sequence in organic chemistry for students in sciences and pre-professional curricula. Topics include structure and reactivity of carbon containing molecules, name reactions, carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, aromatic and hetercyclic chemistry, biomolecules and polymers, and multistep syntheses. This sequence of organic chemistry is designed for students desiring careers in chemistry, biology, health professions, science education, and related areas. This course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Fall, even years.
Prerequisite: CHEM 121.

CHEM 342. Organic Chemistry II. 5 Credits.

The second semester of a two semester sequence in organic chemistry for students in science and pre-professional curricula. Topics include structure and reactivity of carbon containing molecules, name reactions, carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, aromatic and hetercyclic chemistry, biomolecules and polymers, and multistep syntheses. This sequence of organic chemistry is designed for students desiring careers in chemistry, biology, health professions, science education, and related areas. This course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Spring, odd years.
Prerequisite: CHEM 341.

CHEM 360. Elements of Biochemistry. 4 Credits.

A study of protein structure, function conformation, and dynamics; enzymes, DNA-RNA; structure and flow of genetic information; biological membranes; and metabolism. The course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Fall, odd years.
Prerequisite: CHEM 116 or CHEM 341.

CHEM 394. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Prerequisite: Junior Standing or Senior Standing.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

CHEM 395. Laboratory Preparation and Management. 1 Credit.

An opportunity to participate in a practicum-like course. The student directly assists the instructor in numerous aspects of laboratory instructional delivery. The course is designed to improve the competency of teaching laboratories by involving the students in preparation of laboratory materials, storeroom management, evaluation of laboratory experiences, chemical storage, waste disposal, and related safety topics. This course may be repeated for credit up to 3 semester credit hours.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.
Repeatable: Up to 3 Credits.

CHEM 399. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

CHEM 411. Physical Chemistry I. 4 Credits.

The first semester of a two semester course covering the study of the laws and theories of chemistry including thermodynamics, phase equilibria, quantum mechanics and kinetics. Course materials are interpreted through the application of fundamental mathematical and physical principles. Statistical methods and concepts are introduced during the study of the kinetic molecular theory of gases, statistical thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics. This course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Fall, even years.
Prerequisites: CHEM 122, MATH 165, and either PHYS 162 or PHYS 252.

CHEM 412. Physical Chemistry II. 4 Credits.

The second semester of a two semester course covering the study of the laws and theories of chemistry including thermodynamics, phase equilibria, quantum mechanics and kinetics. Course materials are interpreted through the application of fundamental mathematical and physical principles. Statistical methods and concepts are introduced during the study of the kinetic molecular theory of gases, statistical thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics. This course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Spring, odd years.
Prerequisite: CHEM 411.

CHEM 425. Inorganic Chemistry. 4 Credits.

A study of major topics in inorganic chemistry. The structure of crystalline solids, molecular symmetry, acids and bases, oxidation and reduction, and the chemistry of d-metal complexes will be covered. Topics in atomic and molecular structure and bonding as applied to inorganic molecules will also be discussed. The course includes laboratory.
Typically Offered: Fall, even years.
Prerequisite: CHEM 122.

CHEM 490. Secondary Science Methods and Techniques. 3 Credits.

A course designed to prepare prospective chemistry teachers in the areas of curriculum planning, textbook selection, supplemental teaching aids, laboratory procedures, and the ordering of equipment and supplies. The course includes laboratory practicum experience.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: Admitted to Teacher Education.

CHEM 491. Integrated Science Capstone. 2 Credits.

A capstone course that requires students to apply previously-learned knowledge and skills to develop solutions to practical scientific issues. Students will be divided into small groups for plan development. Various majors are involved to allow for integrated course material.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: Senior Standing.
Same As: BIOL 491/CHEM 491.

CHEM 494. Undergraduate Research. 3-12 Credits.

The course is designed to integrate subject matter from major coursework and other disciplines into a project that leads to the creation of an original body of knowledge.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Prerequisite: Junior Standing or Senior Standing.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

CHEM 497. Internship. 3-12 Credits.

An opportunity for students to apply classroom learning to an on-the-job work experience. Internship must be related to the student's major or minor course of study and may be in any geographic location. Credit is granted in the range of three to twelve hours per semester and may be repeated up to a maximum of 12 credit hours. Application and approval through Career Services.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisites: Junior Standing or Senior Standing and cum GPA of 2.50 or higher.
Grading: S/U only.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

GEOL 100. Introduction to Earth Science. 4 Credits.

A broad, non-quantitative survey of topics in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. This course is a prerequisite for many upper division courses and includes laboratory work. Cross-referenced with GEOG 100.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.
Same As: GEOG 100/GEOL 100,GEOG 100/GEOL 100.

GEOL 106. The Earth Through Time. 4 Credits.

A lecture and laboratory course which provides an introduction to the earth through time. Topics include the origin and history of the planet and the history and evolution of animal and plant life. The laboratory work involves studying fossils and interpreting geologic maps and stratigraphic columns. Cross-referenced with GEOG 106.
Typically Offered: Spring, even years.
Prerequisite: GEOL 100/GEOG 100.
Same As: GEOG 106/GEOL 106,GEOG 106/GEOL 106.

GEOL 299. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

GEOL 300. Environmental Earth Science. 4 Credits.

Environmentally focused course which studies and investigates important earth science problems affecting North Dakota, the United States, and the world. Working as a class, in groups, or as individuals, students do labs, field work, and research resulting in presentations about earth science topics. Cross-referenced with GEOG 300.
Typically Offered: Spring, odd years.
Prerequisite: GEOL 100/GEOG 100.
Same As: GEOG 300/GEOL 300.

GEOL 315. Soil Science and Survey. 4 Credits.

A systematic investigation of the morphology, genesis, classification, and field determination of major soil types. Lab work and field analysis are included.
Typically Offered: Fall.

GEOL 394. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

GEOL 399. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

GEOL 416. Hydrology. 4 Credits.

A study of the properties, occurrence, and movement of water on Earth in relation to the hydrologic cycle. This course covers groundwater, surface water, atmospheric water, and soil water processes. Lab and field work are included.
Typically Offered: Spring, odd years.
Prerequisite: GEOL 100/GEOG 100.

GEOL 497. Internship. 3-12 Credits.

An opportunity for students to apply classroom learning to an on-the-job work experience. Internship must be related to the student's major or minor course of study and may be in any geographic location. Credit is granted in the range of three to twelve hours per semester and may be repeated up to a maximum of 12 credit hours. Application and approval through Career Services.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisites: Junior Standing or Senior Standing and cum GPA of 2.50 or higher.
Grading: S/U only.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

PHYS 100. Concepts of Physics. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the concepts of physics as they apply to everyday life. Ideas are presented with a conceptual rather than mathematical approach.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.

PHYS 110. Introductory Astronomy. 4 Credits.

An introductory study of the universe including the solar system, stars, stellar evolution, galaxies, black holes, big bang cosmology, and the expanding universe. Laboratory experiments, visual observations, and telescopic observations are included to reinforce the concepts covered.
Typically Offered: Fall.

PHYS 161. Introductory College Physics I. 4 Credits.

A general physics sequence for those who do not plan to take advanced courses in science. Topics include Newtonian mechanics and gravitation, work and energy, solids and fluids, vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, lights and optics. PHYS 161 has no mathematical prerequisite but knowledge of elementary algebra is recommended.
Typically Offered: Fall.

PHYS 162. Introductory College Physics II. 4 Credits.

A general physics sequence for those who do not plan to take advanced courses in science. Topics include Newtonian mechanics and gravitation, work and energy, solids and fluids, vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, lights and optics.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisite: PHYS 161.

PHYS 199. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

PHYS 251. University Physics I. 4 Credits.

A general physics sequence for students majoring in chemistry, physics, or engineering. Topics include Newtonian mechanics and gravitation, work and energy, solids and fluids, heat and thermodynamics, vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, light and optics, and an introduction to modern physics.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: MATH 165; Corequisite: PHYS 251L.

PHYS 251L. University Physics I Lab. 1 Credit.

The laboratory to accompany PHYS 251.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Corequisite: PHYS 251.

PHYS 252. University Physics II. 4 Credits.

A general physics sequence for students majoring in chemistry, physics, or engineering. Topics include Newtonian mechanics and gravitation, work and energy, solids and fluids, heat and thermodynamics, vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, light and optics, and an introduction to modern physics.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Prerequisites: MATH 166 and PHYS 251; Corequisite: PHYS 252L.

PHYS 252L. University Physics II Lab. 1 Credit.

The laboratory to accompany PHYS 252.
Typically Offered: Spring.
Corequisite: PHYS 252.

PHYS 253. University Physics III. 4 Credits.

Modern physics, a survey covering physics of the 20th and 21st centuries. Topics normally covered include theory of relativity, discovery of quantum phenomena, basic quantum mechanics, overview of atomic, nuclear, and solid state physics, statistical physics, quantum fluids and superconductivity, fundamental forces and the physics of elementary particles. This course is prerequisite for most courses in advanced physics. The laboratory is a 1 credit component of this course (PHYS 253L).
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: MATH 265 and PHYS 252; Corequisite: PHYS 253L.

PHYS 253L. University Physics III Lab. 1 Credit.

The laboratory to accompany PHYS 253.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Corequisite: PHYS 253.

PHYS 275. Planetarium Science. 0-1 Credits.

Students will learn about the operation and maintenance of the Spitz Space System 512 Planetarium and be able to demonstrate the astronomical principles which this instrument models including star and constellation identification and the planetary analog. They will participate in the production and performance of planetarium shows. This course may be repeated for credit up to 3 semester credit hours.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.
Repeatable: Up to 3 Credits.

PHYS 294. Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.

Directed reading, study, and/or activities in selected topics.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

PHYS 299. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

PHYS 395. Laboratory Preparation and Management. 1 Credit.

A practicum-like course giving students the opportunity to directly assist the instructor in numerous aspects of laboratory instruction delivery. The course is designed to improve the competency of teaching laboratory by storeroom management, laboratory preparation and operation, evaluation of laboratory, equipment maintenance and repair, safety, classroom demonstrations and related topics. This course may be repeated for credit up to three semester credit hours.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring.
Repeatable: Up to 3 Credits.

PHYS 399. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Courses not offered in the regular catalog that provide an opportunity to extend student learning.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

PHYS 490. Secondary Science Methods and Techniques. 3 Credits.

A course designed to prepare prospective science teachers in the areas of curriculum planning, textbook selection, supplemental teaching aids, laboratory procedures, and in the ordering of equipment and supplies. The course includes laboratory practicum experience.
Typically Offered: Fall.
Prerequisite: Admitted to Teacher Education.

PHYS 494. Undergraduate Research. 3-12 Credits.

The course is designed to integrate subject matter from major coursework and other disciplines into a project that leads to the creation of an original body of knowledge.
Typically Offered: On sufficient demand.
Prerequisite: Junior Standing or Senior Standing.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.

PHYS 497. Internship. 3-12 Credits.

An opportunity for students to apply classroom learning to an on-the-job work experience. Internship must be related to the student's major or minor course of study and may be in any geographic location. Credit is granted in the range of three to twelve hours per semester and may be repeated up to a maximum of 12 credit hours. Application and approval through Career Services.
Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisites: Junior Standing or Senior Standing and cum GPA of 2.50 or higher.
Grading: S/U only.
Repeatable: Up to 12 Credits.